Banana

Banana is the most popular fresh fruit all over the world and its name comes from the Arabic word 'banan', which means finger.

The scientific name of Banana is Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. But the old scientific names of banana are Musa sapientum and Musa paradisiacal. Bananas are rich source carbohydrates and potassium.

These are the first choice of athletes owing to its high energy potential. Banana is a large perennial herb with leaf sheaths that form the trunk like pseudostem. Banana was first domesticated in the tropical regions of South East Asia. Banana is a nutritious gold mine.

Its high Vitamin B6 content helps fight infection and is essential for the synthesis of ‘heme’, the iron containing pigment of hemoglobin.

The fruit is also rich in potassium and a great source of fibre too. In recent years, considering the adverse impact of indiscriminate use of chemicals, new trend of organic banana production has been adopted worldwide.

Economic Importance of Banana

Banana is a very popular fruit due to its low price and high nutritive value. It is consumed both in fresh and cooked form both as ripe and raw fruit. Banana is a rich source of carbohydrate and is rich in vitamins particularly vitamin B. It is also a good source of potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium.

The fruit is easy to digest, free from fat and cholesterol. Banana powder is used as the first baby food.

It helps in reducing the risk of heart diseases when used regularly and is recommended for patients suffering from high blood pressure, arthritis, ulcer, gastroenteritis and kidney disorders. Processed products, such as chips, banana puree, jam, jelly, juice, wine and halwa can be made from the fruit. The tender stem, which bears the inflorescence is extracted by removing the leaf sheaths of the harvested pseudostem and used as vegetable.

Plantains or cooking bananas are rich in starch and have a chemical composition similar to that of potato.

Banana fibre is used to make items like bags, pots and wall hangers. Rope and good quality paper can be prepared from banana waste. Banana leaves are used as healthy and hygienic eating plates

Banana Plant

Banana plant can be found very easily in one's yard or gardens as they are very easy to cultivate and it is the largest herbaceous flowering plant. It can grow up to 6 to 6.7 meters (20 to 24.9 ft) tall and its leaves can grow up to 2.7 meters (8.9 ft) long and 60 cm (2.0 ft) wide. The banana plant is a large perennial herb with leaf sheaths that form trunk-like pseudostems. The plant has 8 - 12 leaves that are up to 9 ft long and 2 ft wide.

Root development may be extensive in loose soil in some cases up to 30 ft laterally. Other plant descriptions vary, it depends on the variety. Flower development gets initiated from the true stem underground (corm) 9 - 12 months after planting. The inflorescence (flower stalk) grows through the center of the pseudostem. Flowers develop in clusters and spiral around the main axis.

In most cultivars, the female flowers are followed by a few "hands" of neuter flowers that have aborted ovaries and stamens. The neuter flowers are followed at the terminal ends by male flowers enclosed in bracts. The male flowers have functional stamens but aborted ovaries. Fruits mature in about 60 - 90 days after flowers first appear. Each bunch of fruits consists of variable numbers of "hands" along a central stem. Each "hand" consists of two transverse rows of fruits ("fingers").

The fruit quality is determined by size (finger length and thickness), evenness of ripening, freedom from blemishes and defects, and the arrangement of the clusters. Quality standards may differ in various markets.

Major Banana Producing Countries

China , Philippines ,  Brazil ,Indonesia ,  Angola ,  Guatemala , Tanzania and Mexico are some of the major producers of Banana

Major Banan producing states in India

Maharashtra

 

Tail Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Assam are main Banana producing states in India.

Important Banana Producing States and Districts

State Districts
Maharashtra Jaigaon, Dhule, Buldhana
Tamil Nadu Thiruchirapalli, Coimbatore, Pudukottai, North Arcot, Ambedkar, Theni, Periyar, Karur, Dindigul Anna, Thanjavur, Nammakal, Madurai
Gujarat Surat, Anand, Bharuch, Narmada, Vadodara
 Madhya Pradesh  Khandwa, Badwani, Khargone, Dhar
 Andhra Pradesh  Cudappa, Guntur, East Godavari, West Godavari, Vijayanagram, Vishakhapatnam, Karnool, Krishna, Prakasham
 Karnataka  Shimoga, Dakshin Kannada, Tumkur, Bangalore,Udupi, Uttara Kannada, Belgaum, Chickmangalur, Hassan, Mandya
 Assam  Barpeta, Kamrup, Nalbari. Nagaon, Sonitpur.
West Bengal Nadia, North 24 Pragana, Hoogly, Murshidabad, Jalpaiguri, and Midnapur

 

Banana  State-wise, Variety-wise Information

Andhra Pradesh

Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, Amritpant, Thellachakrakeli, Karpoora Poovan, Chakrakeli, Monthan and Yenagu Bontha

Assam

Jahaji (Dwarf Cavendish), Chini Champa, Malbhog, Borjahaji (Robusta), Honda, Manjahaji, Chinia (Manohar), Kanchkol, Bhimkol, Jatikol, Digjowa, Kulpait, Bharat Moni

Bihar

Dwarf Cavendish, Alpon, Chinia , Chini Champa, Malbhig, Muthia, Kothia , Gauria

Gujarat

Dwarf Cavendish, Lacatan, Harichal (Lokhandi), Gandevi Selection, Basrai, Robusta, G-9, Harichal, Shrimati

Jharkhand

Basrai, Singapur

Karnataka

Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, Poovan, Monthan, Elakkibale

Kerala

Nendran (Plantain), Palayankodan (Poovan), Rasthali, Monthan, Red Banana, Robusta

Madhya Pradesh

Basrai

Maharashtra

Dwarf Cavendish, Basrai, Robusta, Lal Velchi, Safed Velchi, Rajeli Nendran, Grand Naine, Shreemanti, Red Banana

Odisha

Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Champa, Patkapura (Rasthali)

Tamil Nadu

Robusta, Rasthali, Poovan, Nendra, Red Banana, Ney Poovan, Monthan, Karpuavalli, Matti, Moris, Peyan and Hill Banana

West Bengal

Champa, Mortman , Dwarf Cavendish, Giant Governor, Kanthali, Singapuri, Amrut Sagar and Lacatan

Banana Commercial Varieties

Grand Naine

It is the popular international variety. It is a tall statured plant and a heavy yielder with long cylindrical bunch. On an average it produces a bunch weighing 25 kg and may go up to 32-35 kg, with 8-10 hands with 200-220 fruits/bunch. The length of the fruit is 15-21 cm and girth is 12-13 cm.

Robusta

It is normal statured with black brown blotches on the stem, bunches weigh around 20 kg having 8-10 hands/bunch. The length of the fruit is in the range of 15-20 cm and girth is about 12 cm with thick fruit skin.

Dwarf Cavendish

The plant stature is dwarf. Dark black brown blotches appear all along the stem. Bunches are large with compactly arranged 8-10 hands weighing about 20kg. Length of fruit is about 13-14 cm and girth is about 8-10 cm. Skin is thick and the fruit gradually tapers towards the tip. It is not fit for export.

Red Banana

The plant is tall and robust statured. The colour of the fruit, pseudostem, petiole and midrib is purplish red. The bunch weight is around 20-25 kg with 6-7 hands and 80 fruits/bunch. The length of the fruit is around 16-18 cm.

Nendran

There is a considerable diversity in plant stature. Bunch has 5-6 hands weighing about 6-12 kg. Fruits have a distinct neck with thick green skin turning buff yellow on ripening. Fruits remain starchy even on ripening.

 

Banana
Banana

Banana Prices in Mandi Markets

Market Price Prev Price Change
Kicchha 1,400.00 1,400.00 0 (0%)
Haridwar Union 1,200.00 1,200.00 0 (0%)
Kanchanpur 2,600.00 2,600.00 0 (0%)
Pulpally 3,900.00 3,900.00 0 (0%)
Kottakkal 4,550.00 4,550.00 0 (0%)